Rinnegan contains powerful chakra and is the strongest of the Three Great Dojutsu. Those who wield the Rinnegan are said to either become the 'God of Creation' who would take care of the world or the ‘God of Destruction’ who would destroy it.It is usually purple in color but there are some users who have red, yellow or blue Rinnegan.
Hagoromo is the first person in the world to possess the Rinnegan. It is said that Hagoromo obtained his Rinnegan simultaneously with his Mangekyo Sharingan. He also learned how to control all five nature transformations. He was the only person to fully master the Rinnegan and he also developed the Six Paths Technique. With the Outer Path, he can call upon souls from the Pure Land and he can even undo the Impure World Reincarnation, in which he releases the souls and sends them back to the Pure Land.
Momoshiki's Rinnegan is rather unique. Unlike the usual Rinnegan, it is red and is present on his palms rather than his eye sockets. It does provide him with special techniques to absorb chakra and ninjutsu. However, if he damages the eyes, he will lose this ability. He can turn his target into pills, which when eaten, grant him extended life along with their chakra and techniques. He can create black receivers which can impale or pierce through anyone.
Madara was successful in obtaining the Rinnegan as he was Indra's reincarnation itself. He later on implanted Hashirama's flesh (Asura's reincarnation) into his body. Thus, since he obtained both their chakras, it awakened his Rinnegan. Even though he was successful in acquiring both the chakras, Madara did not acquire Rinnegan until several decades later. It occurred during his life's final days. His Rinnegan resembled the standard Rinnegan, the purple eye with a ripple-like pattern that spreads around the eyeball. With his Rinnegan, he considered himself the Second Sage of Six Paths, as he could also use the Six Paths Technique. After getting the Ten-tails, Madara awakened a Rinne Sharingan on his forehead.
Sasuke Uchiha received his Rinnegan after receiving half of Hagoromo's chakra. He awakened Rinnegan in his left eye and even though he has done this, his left eye still retains the abilities of his Mangekyo Sharingan. If Sasuke overuses his Rinnegan, it causes his eyesight to diminish for a while. During this time he can’t use his Mangekyo Sharingan and Susanoo. Sasuke's Rinnegan is a tomoe patterned Rinnegan. This granted Sasuke the ability to swap himself with people and objects, heightened perception, etc. He is unable to deactivate his Rinnegan like other users.
Nagato thought he had possessed the Rinnegan since birth. But in reality, Madara had planted his Rinnegan into Nagato when he was near the end of his life. Madara did this so that he could take back the Rinnegan from Nagato in the future. With the Rinnegan, Nagato could access all the Six Paths very well. The six abilities of the Rinnegan are known as the Six Paths, which are: Deva path: which controls the attraction and repulsive forces, Asura path: which can alter a person's body, Human path: which extracts the souls of things, Animal path: which helps to summon various creatures, Aretha chakra: which absorbs someone's chakra, and Naraka Path: which gives the user access to the deity of death, the King of hell. Nagato also reserved for himself the Outer Path which gives the user the ability to revive the dead. He can instantly shift between these abilities with ease.
Obito Uchiha aka Tobi acquired the Rinnegan after killing Konan, who refused to give it to him. After killing Konan, he goes to where Nagato's body was buried and takes his Rinnegan. He acquired a lot of power from it and while it was tough to do with one eye, Obito was capable of performing all the Six Path techniques. Obito created his own version of the Six Paths of Pain and reincarnated Six Jinchūrikis with their tailed beasts. He controlled them, with the chakra receiver inside each of their bodies. Each Jinchūriki had the same eye pattern as him which allowed him to sync his vision with theirs.
Kaguya was the first-ever wielder of chakra, and she has the Rinne Sharingan, which was the predecessor to the Rinnegan. It acts as a third eye on her forehead. It is red in color and has nine tomoe in concentric circles. It allows her to see the flow of chakra, enables her to cast genjutsu, and gives her heightened perception. She can also cast Infinite Tsukuyomi on selected people. She also has the ability to telepathically move from one place to another, and she can even travel through space. She can also become even stronger by absorbing the chakra from those around her.
A. The first person to ever possess the Rinnegan was Hagoromo Otsutsuki.
A. Momoshiki possesses red Rinnegan in his base form. It becomes yellow after he absorbs Kinshiki. The Rinne Sharingan is also red in color, it is the predecessor to the Rinnegan and Sharingan.
A. Momoshiki's Rinnegan turns gold in color after he absorbs Kinshiki.