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Farming/Crops in Minecraft

Farming/Crops in Minecraft
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Minecraft, the popular sandbox video game, offers players a vast virtual world to explore and create in. Among the many features and activities available in the game, agriculture plays a crucial role. Crops, defined as cultivated plants or agricultural produce, add depth to the gameplay by providing a source of food, resources, and decorative elements. In this article, we will delve into the diverse range of crops available in Minecraft, each with its unique characteristics and uses.


Wheat: The Foundation of Farming

At the heart of Minecraft agriculture lies wheat, which serves as the foundation for many other crops. Wheat seeds, commonly referred to as "Crops" in the game, are planted on farmland blocks created by using a hoe on dirt or grass. With proper care and time, these seeds grow into fully-grown wheat, ready to be harvested. Wheat is a versatile crop used in various recipes, such as bread, cakes, and cookies, making it an essential resource for sustaining players' hunger and even taming animals.


Other Crops

While wheat forms the backbone of farming in Minecraft, there is an array of other crops that players can cultivate for different purposes. Let's explore some of these crops:

Beetroot: Beetroot seeds are planted to grow beetroots, which can be harvested and consumed directly or used in crafting recipes. They are particularly useful for brewing potions.

Carrot: Planting carrot crops yields delicious carrots, which can be eaten or used as a crucial ingredient in brewing certain potions. Carrots are also a favorite food for horses and can be used to breed them and accelerate their growth.

Potato: Potatoes are another staple crop in Minecraft. Once grown, they can be harvested and consumed as a food source. Additionally, players can use potatoes to breed and accelerate the growth of pigs.

Melon: By planting melon seeds, players can grow melon crops. These crops produce fully-grown melons that can be harvested and crafted into melon slices, a refreshing source of sustenance. Melons also have decorative uses, such as creating melon stems and carved pumpkins.

Pumpkin: Similar to melons, pumpkins can be cultivated by planting pumpkin seeds. The fully-grown pumpkins can then be harvested and used for crafting carved pumpkins, pumpkin seeds, and other decorative elements.

Sugar Cane: Sugar cane is a tall crop that grows near water bodies. Harvesting sugar canes provides sugar, a vital ingredient in crafting a wide range of consumables, including cakes and potions.

Bamboo: By planting bamboo saplings, players can grow bamboo, which can be harvested and used as a building material, fuel, or crafting ingredient.

Cactus: Cacti thrive in desert biomes and can be harvested for their spiky green stems. These stems have multiple uses, including crafting decorative items and creating cactus green dye.

Mushrooms: Mushrooms can be found in dark areas or planted on specific blocks like podzol or mycelium. They can be harvested and consumed as food or used to grow giant mushrooms by adding bone meal.

Nether Crops: Venturing into the Nether, players can discover unique crops such as Nether Wart, Chorus Fruit, and Fungus. Nether Wart is primarily used for brewing potions, while Chorus Fruit can be consumed for sustenance and teleportation. Fungus, planted on nylium, has variations like crimson and warped and can be grown into huge fungi with the help of bone meal.

Underwater Crops: Minecraft's underwater world offers crops like Kelp, Sea Pickles, and Glow Berries. Kelp can be planted anywhere underwater and harvested for crafting and fuel. Sea Pickles provide light when placed on live coral blocks, and Glow Berries can be harvested from cave vines, serving as a glowing food source.


Preparing the Farm: Establishing Farmland and Water Source

In order to cultivate crops effectively in Minecraft, it's essential to create suitable farmland and ensure a nearby water source. Here's what you need to know about preparing your farm:

Farmland Basics: Farmland is created by using a hoe on dirt or grass blocks. It's important to note that farmland will dry out and revert to dirt if there is no water source nearby, but only if no crops are planted on it. The water source can be either a "still" source block or flowing water. To maintain the moisture of the farmland, the water source should be within four blocks of the farmland horizontally, at the same vertical level, or one level above.

Dry Farming: In certain situations, such as in the Nether, where water is scarce, you can still grow crops by immediately planting them after hoeing the dirt. The farmland will not revert to dirt until after the crop is harvested. However, it's important to note that crops grow slower without water.

Accessing Water: At the beginning of the game, when buckets are not yet available, you can till the dirt at the edge of a pond, lake, river, or any water source. You can also modify the shoreline by adding or removing dirt blocks to create a suitable water supply. As you progress and gather resources, setting up fenced farm plots becomes crucial to prevent mobs from trampling the crops and attacking the farmer.

Creating Efficient Farm Plots

To maximize efficiency and yield on your farm, establishing well-designed farm plots is key. Here's how you can create an efficient farm plot:

Basic Farm Plot: A simple and repeatable farm plot consists of a 9x9 square of farmland with the center square dug out and filled with a water source block. This arrangement provides 80 blocks of farmland and can be fenced with 40 pieces of fence, including gates. It's an ideal setup for small to medium-sized farms. For larger farms, you can replicate this plot in both the X and Z directions.

Covering the Water Source: Leaving the water source uncovered poses a risk of falling into it and trampling the farmland while trying to jump out. To prevent this, you can cover the water source with blocks such as slabs, carpets, lily pads, or other walkable blocks that don't require jumping. In colder biomes, using a solid block cover protects the water from freezing. Another option is to place a block above the water with one space of air between them, preventing accidental falls and allowing the placement of torches, jack o'lanterns, or glowstone for added light.

Ensuring Proper Lighting: Placing torches or other light sources near the crops is crucial for their continuous growth, especially during nighttime or underground farming. Adequate lighting also prevents hostile mobs from spawning near the crops, safeguarding your farm from potential damage.

Optimizing Growth: To speed up the growth of crops, consider planting them in alternate rows. This means leaving bare farmland or planting a different crop between rows. This arrangement allows for better airflow and sunlight penetration, promoting faster and more efficient crop growth.

By following these guidelines and implementing efficient farm designs, you can create thriving agricultural systems in Minecraft, ensuring a bountiful harvest and a sustainable food source for your virtual world.


The Growth Process: Nurturing Your Crops

Understanding the growth process of wheat, carrots, beetroots, and potatoes is crucial to effectively cultivate and harvest these crops in Minecraft. Here's what you need to know:

Growing Conditions for Crops

To ensure successful growth, crops require specific conditions. The following conditions are necessary for the growth of wheat, carrots, beetroots, and potatoes:

Farmland: The crops must be directly planted above a block of farmland. If the farmland is removed or reverts to dirt, the crop will break.

Light Level: A light level of 9 or higher is required at the plant. This light can come from any source, including torches, allowing crops to grow at night or even in underground environments.

Chunk Ticks: The chunk in which the crops are located must be receiving chunk ticks. In the Bedrock Edition, this simply means the chunk needs to be loaded. However, in the Java Edition, the chunk must be within 128 blocks of the nearest player to receive chunk ticks.

Sleeping and Growth: In single-player or multiplayer with only one player nearby, crops do not grow faster when the player is sleeping. However, if torches are not used for lighting, sleeping can skip past nights when crops would not grow.

Growth Stages and Appearances

Each crop goes through various growth stages before reaching maturity. Here's a breakdown of the growth stages for wheat, carrots, beetroots, and potatoes:

Wheat: Wheat has a total of 8 growth stages. Each stage is slightly taller and darker than the previous one. The wheat crop is considered mature when it turns brown.

Carrots and Potatoes: Carrots and potatoes have 8 growth stages as well, but their appearances are similar for certain stages. Stage 7 shares the appearance of stages 5 and 6, allowing players to determine if the crop is fully mature. At stage 8, both carrots and potatoes show bright crops protruding from the ground.

Beetroot: Beetroot has a total of 4 growth stages. When the crop reaches stage 4, bright beetroot crops emerge from the ground.

Growth Mechanics and Duration

Crop growth in Minecraft occurs at random intervals and is influenced by specific factors. The duration of each growth stage varies based on the growing conditions. Under ideal conditions, each stage can last around 5 minutes, while under worst-case conditions, it can take up to 35 minutes.

Ideal conditions for optimal growth include placing crops on hydrated farmland, providing sufficient light sources for nighttime growth, and planting crops in alternate rows. Planting different crops or leaving empty farmland next to each row of plants promotes faster growth. It is also beneficial to have more farmland beyond the row ends and outer rows, although this is often overlooked to maximize the available farming area.

By understanding the growth mechanics and providing the necessary conditions, you can nurture your crops effectively, ensuring a steady and abundant harvest.

Accelerating Growth and Efficient Harvesting Techniques

In Minecraft, there are several ways to accelerate the growth of crops and efficiently harvest them. By utilizing these methods, players can maximize their farming productivity. Let's explore these techniques:

Bone Meal: Using Bone Meal on any crop plant has a chance to advance it by a random number of growth stages. This allows you to expedite the growth process and harvest crops faster. Simply apply Bone Meal to a crop, and it will instantly progress to a more mature stage.

Bee Pollination: Bees can play a vital role in accelerating crop growth through pollination. After collecting pollen from flowers, bees carry it back to their hive or nest. As they make their way, they visually drop pollen particles. If these particles land on a crop, the crop advances one growth stage. Each bee can pollinate up to 10 crops per trip. To take advantage of this behavior, strategically place your crops between beehives and flowers. This arrangement maximizes the exposure of crops to bee pollination, resulting in faster growth. For more information, refer to the Bee section in Minecraft.

Harvesting Techniques

Harvesting crops in Minecraft can be done at any time by left-clicking on them, either with or without a tool. However, the yield varies depending on the maturity of the crop. Here's what you need to know about harvesting different crops:

Wheat: When immature, wheat crops yield only one corresponding seed item. However, when mature, wheat can yield 0-3 seeds and one item of wheat.

Carrots and Potatoes: Mature carrot and potato plants yield 1-4 of the crop. Additionally, mature potato plants have a 2% chance of dropping a poisonous potato in addition to normal potatoes.

Beetroot: When harvested, beetroot drops 0-3 seeds and 1 beetroot item.

Efficient Harvesting Methods

Manually harvesting crops block by block can be time-consuming and tedious. To address this, players have developed automatic harvesting methods. Here are a couple of commonly used techniques:

Water Flooding: One popular tactic is to flood the field with water. When water comes into contact with crops, it automatically harvests them. By creating a water source that covers the entire field, players can harvest all the crops at once, saving time and effort.

Alternative Methods: While water flooding is the most common method, there are other techniques available. Some players utilize redstone mechanisms and pistons to automate the harvesting process. These systems can be complex and require knowledge of redstone mechanics.

By implementing these efficient harvesting techniques, players can streamline their farming operations, save time, and increase productivity in Minecraft.

Growth rate in Minecraft

In Minecraft, the growth rate of crops is influenced by various factors, including surrounding farmland, light level, and neighboring crops. Understanding these mechanics can help maximize crop growth and harvest efficiency. Here are some key points to note:

Surrounding Farmland: The growth probability of a crop depends on the number of points it accumulates based on the condition of the surrounding farmland. Hydrated farmland gives more points than dry farmland. The points are calculated as follows:

Farmland the crop is planted on: Dry farmland gives 2 points, and hydrated farmland gives 4 points.

Farmland blocks surrounding the crop: Dry farmland gives 0.25 points, and hydrated farmland gives 0.75 points. Note that if the field is bordered with anything other than farmland, the plants at the edge grow more slowly.

Light Level: Crops require a light level of at least 9 in the block above them to grow. This can be provided by sunlight or artificial light sources such as torches.

Neighboring Crops: The presence of crops of the same type diagonally or in all eight surrounding blocks can affect the growth rate. Diagonal crops or crops in all directions (north-south and east-west) reduce the growth chance, while crops in only one direction do not. The growth chance is halved once, regardless of the number of surrounding crops.


Based on these mechanics, here are some growth rate probabilities and optimal harvest times:

Fastest Growth per Seed: A full layer of hydrated farmland with crops in rows is ideal. The growth probability during each update is 1/3 (approximately 33%). Most planted crops reach maturity within 31 minutes (about 1.5 Minecraft days). Harvesting at approximately 31 minutes and 3.14 seconds is recommended for an auto-farming system set to a timer.

Hydrated Crops in Rows at the Edge of a Field: The growth probability is 1/4 (25%). Most crops reach maturity within 41 minutes (about 2 Minecraft days).

Hydrated Crops in Rows at the Corner of a Field: The growth probability is 1/5 (20%). Most crops reach maturity within 52 minutes (about 2.5 Minecraft days).

Hydrated Crops not in Rows: These have approximately half the growth probabilities compared to crops in rows.

Worst-case Conditions: Crops placed out of rows on dry farmland have the lowest growth probability. The probability varies from 1/13 (approximately 8%) for middle crops to 1/23 (about 4%) for crops placed diagonally adjacent on dry farmland.

Keep in mind that these probabilities apply when crops are harvested as soon as they reach full maturity. For later stages of the game, where high yield per area is more important, larger fields with alternating rows of different crops can be more efficient than smaller fields sown solidly with a single crop.

The classic farm design in Minecraft involves a 9x9 plot of farmland with the center block replaced by water. The farm can be expanded in the X and Z directions to accommodate more crops. Here are some variations and additional details:

Basic Farm Plot

Layout: 9x9 plot of farmland with the center block replaced by water.

Purpose: Suitable for growing wheat, beetroots, carrots, potatoes, pumpkins, or melons.

Planting: Crops can be planted solidly or in alternating rows for maximum yield per area.

Lighting: Light sources can be suspended above the water block and placed around the edges for night growth.

Harvesting: Dumping a bucket of water over the center block will wash all the crops against the fence for quick harvesting.

Extension: The design can be easily extended in both the X and Z directions, with additional lighting at the corners of the plots if needed.

Vertical Farm

Purpose: Allows multiple crops to be grown in the same field's footprint by stacking the fields vertically.

Design: Fields are stacked with two or three-block spacing between levels.

Water Holding: Each level requires a block to hold the water. A Jack o'Lantern or any block with torches can be used.

Harvesting: Water can be applied with a bucket on the bottom of the lighting block (three-block spacing) or the top of the waterlogged slab (two-block spacing). Alternatively, all levels can be irrigated with a waterfall through the empty center block spaces.

Lighting: Jack o'Lanterns can provide central lighting on each level, or lighting can be placed elsewhere as needed.


Semi-Automatic Harvesting

Extension: Expanding the farm to a 9x10 layout (with two water blocks in the middle) and stacking fields with two-block spacing allows for semi-automatic harvesting.

Automation Setup: Place a double central column between the water blocks, with two Jack o'Lanterns on the bottom and two outward-facing dispensers on top, each loaded with a water bucket.

Harvesting Mechanism: The dispensers can be triggered using buttons or tripwires to release the water and wash the crops towards the collection area.

Additional Features: Adding plot borders with fences, a stairway along one edge, and multiple layers can expand the system further (e.g., 12x12x12).

Considerations: Melons and pumpkins may not be harvested by the water dispensers and could potentially destroy their stems. Adjustments can be made by unloading the dispensers on the melon/pumpkin level or replacing them with other blocks.

Micro Farms

Micro farms, also known as nano farms, are compact farming designs that are suitable for limited spaces in Minecraft. They utilize automation and efficient planting methods to maximize crop growth and harvesting. Here are some examples of micro-farm designs:

Simple Nano Farm

Setup: Place bone meal in the chest, stand in front of the farmland block and plant the crop when the water disappears. The dispenser attached to the slow redstone clock should contain a water bucket.

Function: The dispenser periodically applies water to the crops using the redstone clock, helping them grow faster.

ImpulseSV's Farm Design Workaround

Design: This design requires the player to be boxed in so that the light level is below the value required for seeds to pop out.

Purpose: It provides a workaround for ImpulseSV's Farm Design, which doesn't work effectively after Minecraft version 1.13.

ImpulseSV's Farm Design

Design: A semi-automatic design suitable for all types of crops.

Function: It utilizes water to harvest the crops semi-automatically and collects the items in a central location such as a hopper.

Frilioth's 1.14.4 Potato, Carrot, and Wheat Farm Design

Design: Uses a villager wearing a straw hat to plant and harvest carrots, potatoes, or wheat.

Purpose: Offers a fully automatic farming solution with the help of villagers.

Mikecraft's Farm Design

Design: A slower but efficient design that eliminates the need for manually planting seeds.

Function: Relies on automation to handle the planting process.

Semi-automatic farming methods

Water-based Harvesting: Flowing water can break crops, allowing for semi-automatic harvesting. The drops can be collected using water currents and directed towards a central collection point. Sticky pistons can also be used to move the farmland block and break the crops without reverting the farmland to dirt.


Piston-based Harvesting: Pistons can push crops and break them, but this method requires re-tiling the farmland after each harvest.

Fully automatic farming

Fully automatic farms rely on Farmer villagers to replant the crops. Three general designs are possible:

Seed-only Villager: A villager with a full inventory of seeds continues to replant crops but doesn't pick up the harvested crops. Hoppers or hopper minecarts can collect the crops for you.

Timed Water Mechanism: A villager replants the field, and a redstone mechanism periodically pours water over the farmland to wash the crops into a collection system.

Sharing Food Mechanism: A second villager is placed nearby, and the farmer attempts to share food with them. However, the second villager's inventory is full, preventing them from picking up any food. Hoppers placed where the food lands can collect the dropped items.


It's important to note that fully automatic farms must be within the bounds of a village or located more than 32 blocks away from the outer boundary of any village to ensure the villagers tend to the crops instead of trying to reach a nearby village.

Embrace the Agricultural Adventure

In the vast and immersive world of Minecraft, farming and cultivating crops add a realistic and engaging aspect to the gameplay. Whether you seek sustenance, resources for crafting, or decorative elements for your creations, the wide variety of crops available in the game ensures that every player can find their niche in agriculture. So, grab your hoe, explore the different biomes, and embark on an agricultural adventure in Minecraft!


Q. What is the foundation of farming in Minecraft?

A. Wheat serves as the foundation of farming in Minecraft. It is a versatile crop used in various recipes and provides a source of food and resources.

Q. What are some other crops available in Minecraft?

A. Apart from wheat, players can cultivate crops like beetroot, carrot, potato, melon, pumpkin, sugar cane, bamboo, cactus, mushrooms, Nether crops, and underwater crops

Q. How do you prepare a farm in Minecraft?

A. To prepare a farm, you need to create farmland using a hoe on dirt or grass blocks and ensure a nearby water source to maintain the moisture of the farmland.
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